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  • Quartz Explained | Solar Silicon Resources Group
    500 crystal pullers in their factories They are very large operations that run 24 7 A boule can take anywhere from 12 hours to 40 hours to produce They are typically 2 metres long and 150 to 300mm in diameter Wafering Finishing off At this point the remainder of the manufacturing process is the same for both mono and multi crystalline cells The prepared bricks are sliced into thin wafers typically 150 um 220 um thick This is typically done using a diamond coated wire saw The wire is run in a loop and multiple wafers are cut simultaneously Approximately 30 40 of the silicon is lost in the cutting process this is known as kerf loss The cut wafers then undergo final preparation to make PV solar cells usually in a fully automated production line and in a 100 clean room environment Wires are placed on the cell by screen printing a silver paste onto the wafer and then firing it in a furnace Different etchings textures polishing and coatings are applied to improve the optical electrical characteristics of the cell One of the anti reflective coatings is a silicon nitride deposition which gives the PV cells a blue colour Solar Cells Quartz High purity quartz sand is used exclusively to make PV solar cells In the early stages of the production process quartz crucibles are used to make ingots from polysilicon The crucibles can only be used once as following extraction of the boule impurities are left behind and the crucible is then contaminated They are then broken up and discarded as they cannot be recycled into new crucibles Because they can only be used once crucibles are a critical consumable component for the production of solar cells This is the key aspect of solar manufacturing that drives the high purity quartz market As production of solar cells increases so does the need for crucibles and therefore high purity quartz sand High purity quartz is also used extensively in the tooling of the manufacturing lines for the solar cells Any process that touches the wafers and uses chemicals or high temperatures must utilise high purity quartz to make the handling machine parts Quartz Sources Quartz occurs naturally in many different forms and one of the most prolific sources is beach sand Beach sand is unsuitable for use in the high purity quartz electronics sector due to its higher levels of impurities and its multi crystalline structure By contrast rare High purity quartz only come from a few different geological sources mainly Hydrothermal deposits Australia Russia Madagascar Granite style feldspar deposits United States Quartzite deposits Norway India and China Crystals Brazil Arkansas All of these types of quartz are theoretically capable of being processed into high purity quartz sand but the physical practicability and economics of doing so are crucial factors Some quartz deposits have such high levels of impurities that it is not commercially viable or physically practical to further purify In addition some of the impurities are so tightly formed within the crystalline structure of the quartz crystals at a molecular level that it is almost impossible to achieve the requisite purity and accordingly it is not commercially viable to remove impurities to required levels As evident in Figure 26 above the raw material for high purity quartz sand varies substantially Lighthouse Quartz from Australia Chinese Quartz Chinese Quartz Madagascar Quartz Brazil Lasca Indian Quartz USA Unimin Alaskite Quartz The visual appearance of the quartz can be misleading and is not a reliable indicator in evaluating it for use in the high purity quartz sand market From appearance it would seem that rocks 2 3 4 5 and 6 are likely to be better than 1 and 7 In fact rock 7 is the source for 90 of the high purity quartz sand today this is from the Unimin mine in Spruce Pines North Carolina However as documented below No 1 Lighthouse quartz achieves the highest level of purity of all of the types of quartz shown above The nature and type of impurities is critical to success of high purity processing Whilst rocks 2 6 may appear more glass like with different tints the actual case is that the impurities have diffused atomically into the silica molecule This makes the rock more glasslike and it is these impurities that give it a coloured tinge This is what happens in amethyst purple from iron impurities smokey quartz grey from aluminium impurities rose quartz pink from titanium manganese iron impurities citrine yellow from iron impurities and many more rare and semi precious gemstones While appearing more pure the impurities in these types of quartz are actually very hard to remove with processing These types of impurities are referred to as substitutional because in the silica molecule they have replaced silicon atoms to form a new molecule These impurities are said to be atomically bonded To process these impurities out you must break an atomic bond which is extremely difficult energy consuming and not commercially viable In contrast the Lighthouse rock and some Unimin rock contain impurities that are located between the silica molecules The impurities are different molecules mica kaolin feldspars etc that are found in between the silica molecules i e a rock made up of silica and other minerals The Unimin rock is granites clays micas kaolin feldspars and silica whereas Lighthouse Quartz is feldspars saltwater and silica Such interstitial impurities sit between the silica molecules Interstitial impurities are more easily removed as the molecules need only be separated for extraction of impurities not the breaking of a molecular atomic bond for removal of internal impurities Chemical Analysis examples for Raw Quartz Chemical Assay for rocks from different countries Source Geology Al Fe Ca K Na Li Total PPM SiO 2 Australia Hydrothermal 46 37 7 75 2 09 15 89 19 42 0 178 91 69 99 991 USA Alaskite 20 288 3 473 15 199 9 8 985 2 1 174 3 5 41

    Original URL path: http://www.ssrg.com.sg/quartz/qtztch/ (2015-05-10)
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  • Markets | Solar Silicon Resources Group
    many underperforming or highly leveraged companies exiting the market Although firms face steep competition and overcapacity they now have developed more strategic business models better technology and more efficient operations As system installed costs become competitive with retail electricity rates and new markets outside Europe start to develop rapidly these companies are well positioned for sustainable and profitable growth Semiconductor Market Outlook The semiconductor industry has grown significantly over the past few years Semiconductors can be found in virtually all technical equipment ranging from dishwashers and microwaves to flat screen televisions and machine tools The central role of semiconductors and the constant rising demand for them are reflected in the continuous trend of growth in the sector Industry revenue has experienced an average growth of approximately 9 annually The semiconductor industry demand does not emanate directly from end users but rather is determined by the related end user markets The economic crisis had a negative impact on the semiconductor industry This traditionally cyclical industry has been affected globally by consumers reduced propensity to purchase products and reduced investment However even amidst these tough economic times the manufacturers continue to carry out research and development focusing on smaller more functionality and

    Original URL path: http://www.ssrg.com.sg/quartz/markets/ (2015-05-10)
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  • Applications | Solar Silicon Resources Group
    of crucibles In order to produce metallic silicon suitable for production of high quality wafers polysilicon is placed into a quartz glass crucible heated to a high temperature and a silicon mono crystalline ingot is drawn out of the melt Fused quartz glass is the only material that combines the high purity and heat resistance required for this process High purity industrial glass crucibles are used in both the solar and semiconductor industries for growing single and multi crystalline silicon at high temperature They are also used in other industrial applications such as chemical processing and powder calcinations because of silica s high purity and excellent chemical resistance High purity Cz style crucibles round bowl shaped crucible are used for holding melted polysilicon in order to pull a mono crystalline silicon column The price of the crucible is heavily influenced by the market leaders set prices as well as by the demand from crucible manufacturers SSRG product for the Solar Grade Sand market is LH7 99 997 purity Epoxy Moulded Compound EMC Epoxy Moulding Compounds are used to encapsulate and protect semiconductor chips used in the electronics industry This market typically requires a 99 9 pure silica product combined with an epoxy resin Fused quartz is the main ingredient for EPC and so the silica must be melted and fused into glass form and then ground into smaller particles This chip scale encapsulation has become increasingly important due to the increased popularity of multiple stack chips and proximity of wire bonding with sub mil 25 microns wire and sub mil spacing Relatively few silica miners can produce epoxy moulded compound grade material due to the low levels of alkali metals required in EPC silica feedstock Uranium and Thorium less than 2 ppb low Chlorine are required for memory chips and other sensitive electronic equipment SSRG product for the EMC market is 100 micron product LH5 99 95 99 995 purity High Surface Area Filler Based on a Specialty Silica Report conducted by The Freedonia Group high surface area silica fillers constitute a 1 6 million tonne 3 billion per year global market Silica fillers have a particle size of less than 40 microns are fluffy in nature and non crystalline Fillers attract a wide variety of applications ranging from paints to cosmetics High Purity grades of this material are typically referred to as Fumed Silica Lower purity grades are referred to as Precipitated Silica These titles are derived from the original production techniques used to produce the silica particles SSRG product for the filler market is 100 micron product LH5 99 95 99 997 purity Silica Sand Lamp Grade In the lighting industry silica glass tubes are utilised to envelope the high temperature tungsten filament The glass in halogen lamp glass must have excellent optical transmission properties and the ability to withstand extreme temperatures and thermal shock without being deformed or cracking High purity quartz glass is therefore most suitable Quartz glass tubes are made in a continuous melting process

    Original URL path: http://www.ssrg.com.sg/quartz/faqs/ (2015-05-10)
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  • Media | Solar Silicon Resources Group
    also owns extensive reserves of high purity silica sand which is used for HD LCD TV screens SSRG has been conducting process development for manufacturing at its research center and test plant in Australia since 2009 Mr Graham added Quartz operations are entirely focused on expanding production to saleable quantities of HPQS crucible quartz sand HPQS crucibles are used in the solar and semiconductor industries to grow crystals for wafers used in these industries We have been shipping samples to potential customers for evaluation To become established as a commercial supplier of HPQS most customers demand that the company have redundant refining operations We plan to work with Magnolia Solar to build a new plant in the US and to expand the facility in Australia We plan to add a refining plant in Asia as business demands Under the letter of intent at the completion of the transaction SSRG shareholders will own 90 percent of the combined company while Magnolia shareholders will own 10 percent of the combined company Dr Ashok K Sood President and CEO of Magnolia Solar stated We believe that the combined company offers an exciting opportunity to expand the business in the US and worldwide into materials and product supply for the solar and the semiconductor industries There can be no assurance that the transactions contemplated by the letter of intent will be completed About Magnolia Solar Magnolia Solar Corporation through its wholly owned subsidiary Magnolia Solar Inc is principally engaged in the development and commercialization of its nanotechnology based flexible high efficiency thin film solar cell technology for defense and commercial applications The nanostructure technology can also be deposited on a variety of substrates including glass quartz sapphire and flexible structures to reduce reflection losses for solar cells panels electronic displays and handheld devices Forward

    Original URL path: http://www.ssrg.com.sg/home/media/ (2015-05-10)
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  • Contact Information | Solar Silicon Resources Group
    Contact Information The company has corporate offices in both Singapore and Australia Corporate Head Office Solar Silicon Resources Group 152 Beach Rd level 28 Suite 40 Singapore 189721 Telephone 65 6827 5612 FAX 65 6295 2567 E mail info ssrg com sg Australian Head Office Solar Silicon Resources Group 88 Lorimer Street Docklands VIC Australia 3008 Telephone 613 9008 6388 FAX 613 8677 7682 E mail info ssrg com sg

    Original URL path: http://www.ssrg.com.sg/contact/ (2015-05-10)
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  • Solar Presentation – 2014 | Solar Silicon Resources Group
    Markets Applications Media Contact Solar Presentation 2014 Home Solar Presentation 2014 Download the company presentation from The Australian Solar Council s 52nd annual Australian Solar Council Industry Conference Exhibition http www ssrg com sg solar2014 pdf contact Contact Us Address

    Original URL path: http://www.ssrg.com.sg/solarpres/ (2015-05-10)
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  • Privacy Policy | Solar Silicon Resources Group
    and services your industry classification We collect personal information in a number of ways including when you request information from us when you order goods or services from us when you provide us your details for customer care purposes any additional information relating to you that you provide to us directly through our websites or indirectly through use of our website or online presence through our representatives or otherwise employment applications event registration Disclosure The information given to us by customers remains confidential at all times SSRG will not sell trade rent share distribute or otherwise deal with your information with any third party SSRG agrees not to send unsolicited email of any sort to you from a third party We may only disclose personal customer information or other information collected at any time for a prescribed purpose if We have your expressed consent to do so The information is to be used for a purpose related to that which we outline when collecting the information While on most occasions the consent of the customer will be required before any information is made known to a third party SSRG may do so if in good faith the information is deemed necessary in order to prevent harm of any sort to the customer used in order to investigate conduct which is thought to be unlawful required in order to comply with legal processes Please note that such action will only be taken where it is thought to be absolutely necessary Access To Your Information Customers will have access to the information that they provide to SSRG and this information can be changed and updated at any time Your information once provided will be stored in a secure environment ensuring that other customers are unable to access it in any way SSRG

    Original URL path: http://www.ssrg.com.sg/privacy-policy/ (2015-05-10)
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  • Corporate Policy | Solar Silicon Resources Group
    work as it operates in increasingly complex regulatory regimes across various markets and cultures Company Vision SSRG s vision is to become a major sustainable supplier of high purity quartz to the global high tech industry SSRG believes this goal can be achieved through the utilisation of its extremely rare and pure mineral deposits coupled with its world class purification expertise Process Quality control is an essential part of providing SSRG customers with top quality products Strictly controlled analysis at every stage of the beneficiation process facilitated the production of a commercially viable product that customers can rely on Quality control begins at the mine site where the quartz material is strictly selected and sorted from the deposits Following extraction the raw quartz is crushed and milled and cleaned in both wet and dry processes to remove impurities Quality control of the chemical content of the product is completed at the One Pass Silicon Lab where further purification and cleaning occur R D for all the company s products and activities is an ongoing company investment A Research Centre and Test Facility in Melbourne Australia was established in 2009 by SSRG to test the commercial viability of mined silica quartz and sand The Facility has since developed several patentable processes and applications with important commercial potential People SSRG benefits from a long experienced and skilled local workforce The Company maintains a sales office and full time Chinese sales representative in Shanghai China as well as fully staffed Corporate Offices in Singapore Members of its Senior Management Team have extensive experience in the mining industry strong track records in international sales and marketing general operations and financial management expertise The Team has built crucial relationships with the local workforce and authorities and developed their expertise in dealing with social environmental community

    Original URL path: http://www.ssrg.com.sg/company/policy/ (2015-05-10)
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