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  • yellow bittern (ixobrychus sinensis): info fact sheet, photos
    India Southeast Asia to New Guinea and Micronesia Visitor to Borneo Classification Family Ardeidae World 65 species Singapore 17 species Subfamily Botaurinae These secretive birds are hard to spot because of their supreme camouflage They are usually seen only in flight and their flights are usually brief and low For more about bittern behaviour in general Breeding Yellow Bitterns that live in Singapore breed year round The males perform a breeding display advertising from bush tops hunched with throat puffed out and base of the bill flushed red accompanied by a soft monotonous crrew crrew song They also make slow flapping flight circuits and pursue females Yellow Bitterns prefer to nest in dense vegetation near water In Singapore they used to nest among the fern thickets and Water Hyacinths in the swamps at Kranji Elsewhere they also nest in tall rushes and reeds flooded rice fields undergrowth dense trees near water Where there are a lot of Yellow Bitterns in one area they may nest near each other They make a small neat nest generally a thick pad of sticks reeds grass Nests are 10cm 3m above the water line sometimes roofed by surrounding vegetation 3 5 average 4 pale blue green eggs are laid Both parents share incubation duties The chicks have pale peach pink down and can climb before they can fly The chicks stay away from the nest from about day 15 Migration Many Yellow Bitterns are resident in Southeast Asia but local numbers usually swell with winter migrants These breed in China and Japan and may winter as far away as eastern Indonesia But some Yellow Bitterns breed in Singapore Status and threats Yellow Bitterns are still common and currently not endangered But they are affected by habitat destruction and overuse of pesticides which poison their

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Ixobrychus_sinensis.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • cinnamon bittern (ixobrychus cinnamomeus): info fact sheet, photos
    birds Yellow Bittern I sinensis has a black cap and distinctive wing pattern when in flight Status in Singapore Common resident and winter visitor throughout the island including North offshore islands World distribution Throughout China to India Southeast Asia to Philippines and Sulawesi Classification Family Ardeidae subfamily Botaurinae World 65 species Singapore 17 species Secretive birds Cinnamon Bittern are hard to spot because of their supreme camouflage They are usually seen only in flight and their flights are usually brief and low For more about bittern behaviour in general Breeding Cinnamon Bitterns breed year round Males perform breeding displays perched alone with their heads above the vegetation they stretch upright their facial skins flushed orange They then suddenly crouch and puff out the throat with bill tilted upwards exposing their white throat stripe and black breast side tufts All to the accompaniment of soft kok calls They also perform slow flapping flight displays alone or in groups Cinnamon Bitterns nest on the ground in swampy places or on a platform of bent over stems and leaves about 50cm off the ground The nest is a made out of short pieces of reeds grass or other vegetation 5 6 dull white eggs are laid and both parents incubate 23 days Chicks are creamy white Their nests are so hard to find that according to Malay folklore if a man wears the nest on his head he will become invisible Status and threats Cinnamon Bitterns are still common and currently not endangered But they are affected by habitat destruction and overuse of pesticides which poison their prey and them Ironically Bitterns may actually help control insect pests on rice fields and should be encouraged LINKS Birds of India on Yatraindia website fact sheet REFERENCES To buy these references others visit Nature s

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Ixobrychus_cinnamomeus.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • kingfisher (alcedinidae): info fact sheet, photos
    3 species Forest Kingfishers Daceloninae larger bills long massive slightly hooked tip for holding and crushing prey don t depend on water live mainly in forests and scrubland eat snakes lizards insects small vertebrates Some members use their bills to dig in the ground for prey They nest in termite mounds and tree holes 55 species including the kookaburra Dacela novaeguineae Singapore 5 species Solitary creatures Kingfishers are fiercely territorial of good feeding spots energetically chasing off other Kingfishers including their offspring Although a male may tolerate a female they are still quite nervous near each other Bluer than blue The Kingfisher s trademark blue colour is not an actual pigment on the feathers It is the result of special layers in the feathers which reflect only the blue wavelengths of light As Kingfishers fly their colours may thus change from blue to green Breeding Kingfishers dig their nests in earth banks along the river or coastal areas or in dead rotten trees and even termite mounds The pair build the nest together For those that dig holes the male starts off by flying at the surface and stabbing at it with his bill until he has created a grip from which he can start digging The male and female then take turns to dig the tunnel They use their bills to loosen the material then shovel out the material with their feet Their three front toes are joined for part of their length This makes it difficult for them to walk but forms handy shovels Tunnels usually slope upwards to drain off debris and water and can be up to 60m deep The tunnel ends in a rounded chamber If the birds encounter an obstacle in their digging they may start all over again The eggs are pure white

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Alcedinidae.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • common kingfisher (alcedo atthis alcedinidae): info fact sheet, photos
    green blue back and rump Flight is direct and low Male Female Photo from Morten Strange and Allen Jeyarajasingam Similar birds Other kingfishers are much larger lacks white head sides Status in Singapore Very common winter visitor throughout the island and North and South offshore islands World distribution Throughout Old World to New Guinea and Pacific Islands but not in Australia Classification Family Alcedinidae subfamily Alcedininae World 26 species Singapore 2 species There are 9 subspecies of the Common Kingfisher Before eating a fish the bird will hold it by its tail and whack it to death against the perch particularly fishes with poky fins Otherwise the live fish may extend its fins in the bird s throat choking it sometimes to death Kingfishers regurgitate pellets of indigestible fishbone The birds preen themselves carefully after fishing to ensure their feathers remain waterproof Juveniles often nearly drown because they failed to pay enough attention to preening Common Kingfishers are solitary and highly territorial because they have to eat about 60 of their body weight a day They fiercely defend their feeding grounds even from their mates and offspring When contesting territory they perform a ritual display perched some distance from each other This involves displaying feathers and beaks accompanied by whistling Usually the dispute is resolved without actual combat But in rare instances combatants will lock beaks and attempt to drown each other Breeding Common Kingfishers seen in Singapore are visitors and breed in Northern Asia e g Taiwan Korea But there is a small resident population in peninsular Malaysia For those in Europe courtship involves chasing and calling and usually culminates in the male catching and offering the female an engagement fish Common Kingfishers nest on steep river banks or even active termite mounds digging out a tunnel that ends in a chamber 4 8 usually 2 white eggs are laid incubated by both parents in 18 21 days Both parents raise the young The chicks fledge in about 23 24 days Mortality rates can be as high as 50 For more about the hunting methods and breeding habits of Kingfishers in general Migration Common Kingfishers that breed far north migrate to the south usually travelling at night They may travel past the breeding grounds of more southerly residents and go all the way to eastern Indonesia In Singapore they are more common in August to April Status and threats The Common Kingfisher is not at risk in Singapore where they are found near open streams canals reservoirs ponds and along the coasts They are usually not found in forests or densely forested streams LINKS About the European Common Kingfisher Birds of Slovenia fact sheet distribution map and sounds Birds of Britain fact sheet drawing The Evergreen Project on Ask Jeeves for schools fact sheet distribution map drawing REFERENCES To buy these references others visit Nature s Niche Morten Strange A Photographic Guide to Birds of Malaysia and Singapore including Southeast Asia the Philippines and Borneo Periplus 2000 p 178

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Alcedo_atthis.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • stork billed kingfisher (pelargopsis capensis):info fact sheet, photos
    In flight Plain blue wings big red bill Similar birds Collared Kingfisher H chloris has black bill and feet the Stork billed has no white collar White throated Kingfisher H smyrnensis the Stork billed has no underparts Black capped Kingfisher H pileata the Stork billed has no white collar Status in Singapore Uncommon resident throughout the island and North and South offshore islands World distribution India across the Asian subcontinent and Southeast Asia to Sulawesi Classification Family Alcedinidae subfamily Dacelonidae World 61 species Singapore 5 species Mostly solitary Stork billed Kingfishers are territorial and will also chase away even larger birds like storks and eagles from their feeding and breeding grounds Only occasionally are they found in pairs Breeding Stork billed Kingfishers dig out a tunnel nest in among other things river banks termite and ants nests include a nest made 6 m high up in a tree and a hollow tree trunk 2 5 white eggs are laid Little else is known about their breeding habits For more about the hunting methods and breeding habits of Kingfishers in general Status and threats Although not very common Stork billed Kingfishers are not considered at risk in Singapore They are found near freshwater wetlands ponds reservoirs rivers as well as brackish and coastal areas and the edges of forest and cultivated lands REFERENCES To buy these references others visit Nature s Niche Morten Strange A Photographic Guide to Birds of Malaysia and Singapore including Southeast Asia the Philippines and Borneo Periplus 2000 p 181 description voice habits distribution status photo David R Wells The Birds of the Thai Malay Peninsula Vol 1 Non Passarines Academic Press 1999 p 507 509 identification distribution map habits habitat migration conservation Lim Kim Seng Pocket Checklist of the Birds of the Republic of Singapore Nature

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Pelargopsis_capensis.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • white collared kingfisher (halcyon chloris): info fact sheet, photos
    Kingfisher Halcyon pileata has red bill and feet Status in Singapore The most common Kingfisher in Singapore resident throughout the island and North and South offshore islands World distribution Middle East to the Western Pacific Classification Family Alcedinidae subfamily Dacelonidae World 61 species Singapore 5 species They are also aggressive towards other birds such as mynas vigorously driving off these birds from their feeding grounds particularly during breeding season They may even drive off landbound creatures Breeding Collared Kingfishers breed in Singapore They perform courtship flights and the male may offer the female titbits Both parents make the nest They prefer to dig out a nest in dead trees or palms and sometimes take over woodpecker holes Some even burrow into the active nests of ants and termite high in the trees Or burrow among the roots of a fern growing in a tree Only occasionally do they dig out tunnel nests in earth banks or a mud lobster mound Good nest sites are often reused at the next breeding season 2 4 usually 3 white eggs are laid In a good season two broods may be raised For more about the hunting methods and breeding habits of Kingfishers in general Migration Most Collared Kingfishers in our region appear to be resident Status and threats The Collared Kingfisher is not considered at risk in Singapore In the past they were mostly found along the coasts and mangroves But they have moved inland to hunt along freshwater wetlands cultivated lands gardens and parks They usually avoid forests LINKS Cleveland Zoo fact sheet REFERENCES To buy these references others visit Nature s Niche Morten Strange A Photographic Guide to Birds of Malaysia and Singapore including Southeast Asia the Philippines and Borneo Periplus 2000 p 183 description voice habits distribution status photo Morten

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Halcyon_chloris.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • white throated kingfisher (halcyon smyrnensis): info fact sheet, photos
    patch at base of primaries Similar birds Collared Kingfisher H Todirhamphus chloris has white collar black bill and feet blue cap no brown underparts in flight uniformly blue upperparts Black capped Kingfisher Halcyon pileata has white collar black cap in flight appears similar Status in Singapore Common resident throughout the island and North and South offshore islands World distribution Middle East through the Asian subcontinent to the Philippines Classification Family Alcedinidae subfamily Dacelonidae World 61 species Singapore 5 species White throated Kingfishers dive to catch aquatic prey in shallow water entering feet first in deeper waters head first They can also hover for a short while before plunging in They also dive into grass and vegetation to catch their prey Their huge bills come in handy to hammer their prey to death Swarming termites may also be caught in flight Their hunts appear to be more successful in wetlands than on dry land White throated Kingfishers hunt alone but where hunting is good they may perch as close as 100 m apart without showing much hostility Breeding White throated Kingfishers breed in Singapore in December May Courting White throated Kingfishers display on a perch as they sing spreading out their wings to show the white patches Some perform a courtship flight flying straight up then spiralling downwards White throated Kingfishers nest in steep earth banks besides roads and stream and occasionally termite mounds They dig out a tunnel about 7 cm wide 50 cm to nearly 1 m deep ending in a breeding chamber about 20 cm in diameter During the construction period the mated pair are very vocal and call and display to each other continuously 4 7 white eggs are laid Both parents raise the chicks For more about the hunting methods and breeding habits of Kingfishers in general Migration White throated Kingfishers in Singapore are resident Elsewhere they migrate but within their breeding range Status and threats White throated Kingfishers are not considered at risk in Singapore possibly because of their broad diet They are found everywhere not necessarily near water Besides ponds reservoirs and coastal areas they are also found in forest edges scrub open woodlands gardens and rural suburban areas LINKS Birds of India on Yatraindia website fact sheet REFERENCES To buy these references others visit Nature s Niche Morten Strange A Photographic Guide to Birds of Malaysia and Singapore including Southeast Asia the Philippines and Borneo Periplus 2000 p 182 description voice habits distribution status photo Morten Strange Tropical Birds of Malaysia and Singapore Periplus Editions 2000 p 34 habits habitat photo David R Wells The Birds of the Thai Malay Peninsula Vol 1 Non Passarines Academic Press 1999 p 511 512 identification distribution map habits habitat migration conservation Morten Strange Birds of Southeast Asia A photographic guide to the birds of Thailand Malaysia Singapore the Philippines and Indonesia New Holland 1998 p 44 photo facts Lim Kim Seng and Dana Gardner Birds An Illustrated Field Guide to the Birds of Singapore Sun Tree

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Halcyon_smyrnensis.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • black capped kingfisher (halcyon pileata): info fact sheet, photos
    wing tips white patch at base of primaries Similar birds Collared Kingfisher H Todirhamphus chloris smaller size black bill and feet blue cap white underparts in flight uniformly blue White throated Kingfisher H smyrnensis lack white collar In flight appears similar Status in Singapore Common winter visitor throughout the island and North and South offshore islands World distribution East Asia from India to Sulawesi Classification Family Alcedinidae subfamily Dacelonidae World 61 species Singapore 5 species Breeding Black capped Kingfishers nest along river banks Both parents dig out the nest tunnel up to 60cm deep 4 5 eggs are laid For more about the hunting methods and breeding habits of Kingfishers in general Migration Black capped Kingfishers are the most northerly breeders in their genus They breed in northern Asia from India through Myanmar to China and Korea and do not appear to breed further south than Indochina and Thailand Those found in Singapore are migrants that breed in Myanmar and China They migrate alone or in pairs faithfully following traditional routes going as far south as Borneo Sumatra and Java They arrive in September and leave in April Status and threats Black capped Kingfishers are not considered at risk in Singapore They are found mainly in freshwater habitats open ponds reservoirs rivers coasts But elsewhere they can also be found in drier inland habitats and up to 1 000m high REFERENCES To buy these references others visit Nature s Niche Morten Strange A Photographic Guide to Birds of Malaysia and Singapore including Southeast Asia the Philippines and Borneo Periplus 2000 p 182 description voice habits distribution status photo Morten Strange Tropical Birds of Malaysia and Singapore Periplus Editions 2000 p 34 habits habitat photo David R Wells The Birds of the Thai Malay Peninsula Vol 1 Non Passarines Academic Press

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Halcyon_pileata.htm (2016-02-16)
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