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  • common sandpiper (actitis hypoleucos): info fact sheet, photos
    in Singapore Very common winter visitor throughout the island and offshore islands World distribution Throughout the Old World including Australia Classification Family Scolopacidae World 88 species Singapore 34 species From the Order Charadiiformes Breeding April July Common Sandpipers breed in northern Eurasia from the Atlantic across the continent to Central Japan They usually arrive at their breeding grounds in pairs Their breeding song is a repeated rising kittie needie They prefer to nest near water including stony and fast flowing rivers small pools lakes sheltered sea coasts Their nest is usually a shallow hollow on the ground lined with leaves and plant stalks under overhanging plants But sometimes in trees or shrubs and even on rafts of floating vegetation 4 yellowish eggs with dark mottling or spots are laid The male does most of the incubation 21 23 days As soon as they are dry the hatchlings disperse away from the nest to hide among the surrounding vegetation The male does most of the rearing Migration Common Sandpipers migrate in small groups rarely more than 200 or alone They migrate well north across much of the Old World including Australia although few reach New Zealand They are likely to be among the most numerous visiting waders but this is hard to confirm because they are widely dispersed in their winter grounds They winter in a wide variety of wetlands that offer firm mud sandy rocky or grassy surfaces These include mangroves coastal dunes estuaries rivers ponds canals reservoirs rice fields Status and threats The Common Sandpiper for now faces no serious threats and are the most widespread and adaptable of shorebirds Perhaps it is because they can eat a wide range of food LINKS Mourne Game and Wildfowl Conservation Association fact sheet on breeding diet and distribution Birds of Slovenia

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Actitis_hypoleaucos.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • greenshank (tringa nebularia): info fact sheet, photos
    hoo In flight Legs green and trail beyond barred tail white rump and lower back prominent Similar birds Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis Head is paler more streaked with less distinct eyebrow legs longer bill thinner less up tilted Status in Singapore Very common non breeding winter visitor on the island and North and South offshore islands World distribution Throughout the Old World including Australia and New Zealand Classification Family Scolopacidae World 88 species Singapore 34 From the Order Charadiiformes The Greenshank male does a switchback display flight sometimes at great height Most are usually faithful to their old nesting site and partner but some males may mate with two females Greenshanks nest on the ground usually next to a piece of dead wood The nest is shallow hollow lined with grass and other plants 3 5 usually 4 pale yellowish green eggs with speckles are laid These are incubated mainly by the female particularly if the male has two females They hatch in 23 24 days As soon as their feathers dry up the young disperse away from the nest hiding among the undergrowth Usually one parent leaves not long after the eggs hatch leaving the remaining parent to raise the young Sometimes the parents split up the chicks between them raising them separately The young fledge in 25 31 days Migration In the winter Greenshanks migrate to the Mediterranean Basin Persian Gulf China South Africa India Indochina Southeast Asia and even Australia They winter on a wide range of wetland habitats both coastal and inland but prefer estuaries to the open coast In Singapore Greenshanks are found in mangroves mudflats estuaries sandy shores Also freshwater wetlands ponds reservoirs canals rice fields swamps Status and threats Greenshanks are not endangered because their breeding grounds are extensive and they breed in

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Tringa_nebularia.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • marsh sandpiper (tringa stagnatilis): info fact sheet, photos
    flight Legs protrude well beyond tail tip prominent white rump and lower back no wing bars Similar birds Greenshank Tringa nebularia similar in flight Greenshank is larger legs shorter head and neck heavier bill thicker more uptilted Status in Singapore Very common winter visitor and passage migrant to coasts on the island and North and South offshore islands Juvenile Breeding Non breeding In flight Photos from Rosair and Cottridge World distribution Worldwide including Australia and New Zealand Classification Family Scolopiacidae World 88 species Singapore 34 species From the Order Charadiiformes Breeding April August Marsh Sandpipers breed in temperate zones from Southeastern Europe through Russia to Western Siberia and Ussuriland The courtship song is a repeated tu ee u On breeding grounds the alarm call is a sharp chip Marsh Sandpipers nest around grassy and muddy shores of freshwater pools in steppes and boreal wetlands with lush grassy vegetation But they may also tolerate brackish water Nests may be solitary or in loose colonies with the nests about 10m apart Both parents incubate and raise the young Migration Most Marsh Sandpipers winter in sub Saharan Africa and in India others in Europe Fewer winter in Southeast Asia and Australia Marsh Sandpipers tend to fly long distances and don t stop often at passage sites They usually arrive late and leave early Non breeders may stay at the wintering grounds all year or summer at intermediate sites They prefer to winter on inland wetlands both fresh and brackish sometimes in large numbers of several hundred In Singapore they are found on mudflats sandy shores ponds reservoirs and canals Status and threats Marsh Sandpipers are particularly threatened by the overuse of insecticides and herbicides because they tend to forage in cultivated wetlands such as ricefields REFERENCES To buy these references others visit Nature

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Tringa_stagnatilis.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • common redshank (tringa totanus): info fact sheet, photos
    South offshore islands World distribution Throughout Europe Africa and Asia to Sulawesi Classification Family Scolopacidae World 88 species Singapore 34 species From the Order Charadiiformes Wary and nervous birds Common Redshanks are often the first to panic and give noisy alarm calls to other nearby waders When disturbed they constantly bob their tail They prefer marine habitats and only visit freshwater wetlands when high tides submerge coastal roosts Breeding April June Common Redshanks breed across the Pelearctic Iceland Britain much of Europe the Middle East and temperate Asia e g the Himalayas up to 4 500m Common Redshanks are monogamous and pairs will return to the same site and same partner Male courtship display includes a rising and falling yodelling song flight during which he vibrates his wings held downwards below the horizontal Common Redshanks nest on a wide variety of inland and coastal wetland habitats They are usually breed in high density at coastal saltmarshes inland damp grasslands but are also found in swampy moorlands and high grass steppes They may form loose breeding colonies and are not strongly territorial In fact when a predator attacks a nest all the adults gather from a wide area to mob it The nest is just a shallow depression on the ground concealed near or under vegetation e g at the base of long grasses with the grass stems forming a roof The male builds the base and the female lines it with twigs and leaves 3 5 average 4 eggs are laid Both parents incubate usually 22 25 days The About a day after they hatch the young disperse from the nest to feed themselves although the parents keep a watchful eye on them Initially both parents look after the young But the female usually leaves the breeding site first The male remains to look after the young until they fledge at about a month old Sometimes the parents split up the chicks between them raising them separately Migration Common Redshanks can be seen in large numbers during migrations in flocks of up to 80 They are however less migratory than others of the Tringa species Migration distances range from 500 to 6 500km one way They usually migrate at night Some populations in Western Europe and Iceland are resident Others winter in areas from Africa to the Philippines In Singapore they winter on muddy coasts occasionally inland swamps avoiding inland and freshwater areas Their numbers peak around September Status and threats Common Redshanks are not considered endangered However their numbers are falling primarily due to the loss of their breeding grounds as these are converted for agriculture and other human uses On the other hand grazing by domestic cattle actually helps to create suitable low grass areas for Common Redshanks to nest LINKS Birds of Britain fact sheet about how grazing can help create suitable nesting areas colour diagrams of a bird standing and in flight All about Birds facts sheet on breeding migration with distribution map and photo Mourne

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Tringa_totanus.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • pacific golden plover (pluvialis fulva): info fact sheet, photos
    in Singapore and thus the confusion is more likely at their breeding site Breeding Non breeding Juvenile Photos from Rosair and Cottridge Status in Singapore Very common non breeding winter visitor throughout the island and North and South offshore islands World distribution Worldwide Classification Family Charadriidae which includes stilts and lapwings World 89 species Singapore 12 species The Pacific Golden Plover was recently separated from the Lesser American Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica that is found in the Americas Although the two share breeding grounds they do not interbreed From the Order Charadiiformes They prefer well vegetated well drained tundra often on hillsides ridges or raised polygons The nest is just a shallow scrape lined with lichens 4 eggs are laid incubated by both parents 26 days Soon after hatching the chicks and parents move off to moist shrubby or grassy tundra When threatened the parent distracts the predator from the nest or chicks by pretending to have a broken wing Both parents raise the young but if the brood is late only by the male Migration Phenomenal long distance travellers after breeding in the Arctic these plovers migrate to spend winter almost half way around the world 5 000 13 000km away one way Some winter on tiny islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans a feat which requires precise navigation Alaskan breeders winter in Hawaii Fiji South Pacific Islands all the way to New Zealand Siberian breeders migrate to Africa India Indochina Southeast Asia all the way to Australia Most winter on coastal mudflats beaches reefs But they may also be found inland on short grasslands such as airfields or around freshwater pools lakes rivers marshes rice fields Status and threats Like other waders Pacific Golden Plovers are threatened by habitat destruction and water pollution They are shy and

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Pluvialis_fulva.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • little ringed plover (charadrius dubius): info fact sheet, photos
    note Alarm call is an insistent pip Breeding Non breeding Juvenile Photos from Rosair and Cottridge In flight Faint or no white wingbar and white outer tail feathers Flight is rapid and low over the ground Similar birds Similar to several other plovers Ringed C hiaticula white unbroken neck ring legs orange yellow Kentish C alexandrius white unbroken neck ring broken breast band legs yellow to black Malaysian C peronii white unbroken neck ring broken breast band legs greyish and long Mongolian C mongolus no white collar breast band legs greyish and short Status in Singapore Common non breeding winter visitor throughout the island including North offshore islands World distribution Africa through Asia to New Guinea Classification Family Charadiidae World 89 species Singapore 12 species Three races dubius Philippines to New Guinea jerdoni India to Southeast Asia and curonicus Africa and Eurasia from Britain to Japan From the Order Charadiiformes The eggs are very well camouflaged against their gravely nest site Photo from John Palmer Little Ringed Plovers nest mainly on gravely river banks lake shores or small islands usually near fresh water But they have also adapted to industrial sites These include gravel works and rubbish tips Although usually solitary some may be semi colonial nesting about 9m apart They appear to purposely nest near aggressive shorebirds whose behaviour helps to keep predators away The nest is simply a shallow scrape sometimes lined with plants or stones 3 4 eggs are laid and both parents incubate 22 28 days Besides the parents sometimes another bird or even two may help out with incubation raising the young and even defending the territory These helpers may be male or female and are believed to be the offspring or former partners from the previous season The chicks are highly active running quickly on their long legs To distract predators from their eggs or chicks the parents use the broken wing feint The young fledge in 24 29 days but the female may depart before that to lay another clutch of eggs or to migrate Migration Little Ringed Plovers are migratory over most of their range although those that breed in some southern areas are resident They winter southwards of their breeding sites on muddy shores both inland and coastal In Singapore they are found on mangroves mudflats sand bars ponds reservoirs marshes grassland riverbanks Status and threats Little Ringed Plovers are adaptable to different feeding grounds during their migration However their breeding sites are affected by man made changes that affect river flows Nesting is disrupted by unseasonal flooding of gravel banks On the other hand lack of natural flooding also prevents the renewal of gravel beds and they become overgrown and unsuitable nesting sites for these plovers However the birds usually recover quickly often laying again days after losing their eggs or chicks They also readily take over man made sites such as gravel works sewerage farms beet factory settling ponds and even shingle roofs Nevertheless their numbers have declined and

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Charadrius_dubius.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • lesser mongolian plover (charadrius mongolus): info fact sheet, photos
    border near neck Winter non breeding eyebrow white breast band grey brown much narrower and usually broken at the centre Juvenile pale buff fringes to feathers of back and wings breast band restricted to the sides same as the Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii Call A trilling drrit or pipip soft chi tik Breeding Non breeding Juvenile Photos from Rosair and Cottridge In flight Narrow white wingbar dark centre rump and white sides and outer tail Similar birds Similar to several other plovers Ringed C hiaticula white unbroken neck ring legs orange yellow Kentish C alexandrius white unbroken neck ring broken breast band legs yellow to black Malaysian C peronii white unbroken neck ring broken breast band legs greyish and long Little Ringed C dubius white unbroken neck ring legs pinkish Greater Sand C leschenaultii larger no white collar legs yellowish greenish to grey and longer Status in Singapore Very common passage migrant and winter non breeding visitor to coastal areas World distribution Throughout the Old World Classification Family Charadiidae World 89 species Singapore 12 species From the Order Charadiiformes Migration Mongolian Plovers are powerful travellers From their northerly breeding grounds they winter on the coasts and estuaries around the Indian Ocean and South west Pacific Africa India Sumatra to the Greater Sundas and Australia There are 5 races which take different migration routes Those visiting Singapore generally breed in Central or Northeast Asia Mongolian Plovers usually winter on muddy and sandy coasts and occasionally at inland wetlands or on cultivated grounds On migrations and on wintering grounds they are found in large numbers sometimes mixing with Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii which they closely resemble In Singapore they come in groups of about 70 They adopt partial breeding plumage before leaving their wintering grounds Status and threats Like other

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Charadrius_mongolus.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • herons egrets (ardeidae): info fact sheet, photos
    do the same trick with a bit of feather Other herons elsewhere so likewise The Little Egret Egretta garzetta has black legs but bright yellow feet which it uses to good advantage It stands on one leg and shakes its bright yellow foot above the water surface to attract prey Herons and Egrets hunt in shallow waters which gives them the advantage over their prey Other heron specialities All members of the family Ardeidae have specialised feathers called powder down These are never moulted but fray from the tip and grow continuously from the base While pigeons have similar feathers all over their bodies in herons these are concentrated in patches The fine powder that is generated as these feathers fray is used by the bird to remove slime and oil from their feathers Another heron feature is their 4 long toes 3 pointing toes forwards and one backwards The claw on the middle of the forward toes has a rough comb like inner margin that the heron uses to preen its soft feathers Breeding Many herons have spectacular courtship displays Some develop delicate lacy breeding feathers on the head back or breast which are used during the courtship displays During breeding season they also develop brighter colours on their legs bill eyes and lores the patch of bare skin between the bill and their eyes The brighter colours remain for a while after the pair bond is established and eggs are laid Photo from James Hancock Most herons form monogamous pairs and both parents look after the young Most typical herons nest in colonies called heronries while bitterns and night herons are secretive and nest alone Status and threats The word egret comes from the word aigrette which refers to the lacy breeding plumes of 6 species of white

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Ardeidae.htm (2016-02-16)
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