archive-sg.com » SG » N » NATURIA.PER.SG

Total: 137

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • lotus (nelumbo nucifera): info fact sheet, photos
    conical structure with seeds each in its own socket Status in Singapore Common World distribution Native to the Asian subcontinent from Persia to China and Japan Classification Family Nymphaeaceae Uses as food The seeds are eaten unripe and raw or ripe and cooked They are a popular ingredient in local desserts like cheng teng The rhizomes are also eaten These are long sausage shaped with hollow portions and are connected like sausages on a string They are boiled in soup candied as a dessert or pickled The petioles and young roots are also eaten The large circular leaves may be used to wrap food such as in lotus rice The plant has been cultivated in China since the 12th century BC Traditional medicinal uses The rhizomes or leaves are used with other herbs to treat sunstroke fever diarrhoea dysentery dizziness vomiting of blood haemorrhoids The whole plant is used as an antidote to mushroom poisoning Seeds The embryonic seeds for high fever cholera Chinese nervous disorders and insomnia the seeds to stop vomiting relieve indigestion and diarrhoea or just as a tonic Flowers pounded petals for syphilis for cosmetic unguents Java the flower stalk with other herbs to treat bleeding from the uterus Fruit the pods contain alkaloids that stop bleeding To Buddhists the flower represents the perpetual cycles of reincarnation Buddha is said to be born in the heart of a lotus flower and he is often depicted sitting in a lotus flower or on its leaf The Hindus associate the flower with the creation of the world In Japan it is also held as a symbol of purity and beauty In Ancient Egypt another species Nymphaea lotus was also a strong symbol in daily and religious life Role in the habitat Lotus leaves shade the water keeping it

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/lotus.htm (2016-02-16)
    Open archived version from archive

  • water lily (nymphaea): info fact sheet, photos
    is produced and pollen is released instead The insect that falls into the fluid usually emerges unharmed although a few unlucky ones may be trapped and drown A few days after the Water Lily flower is pollinated the flower stem tightens in a spiralling spring to bring the flower head underwater The fruit develops underwater into a spongy berry with many seeds that are enclosed in arils When ripe up to 2 000 seeds are released from each fruit Young seeds float as they contain air pockets They are then dispersed by water currents or by water birds that eat them As they become waterlogged they sink into the mud to germinate The plant also spreads by sprouting from the creeping rhizomes The flat round leaves have a waxy water repellent upper side The underside however seems to cling to the water by surface tension Some Water Lilies leaves are purple underneath the pigments helping to concentrate the sunlight to maximise photosynthesis The leaf stem is hollow and transports air from the surface to the underwater rhizomes which can grow to a massive size Water Lilies grow best in calm freshwater Uses The American Indians made flour out of dried roots by pounding them The flour was then baked into pancakes The young leaves and flower buds were eaten as vegetables seeds eaten fried Traditional medicinal uses American Indians used the plant to treat many ailments Mashed green roots were used as poultice for swollen limbs the roots for problems of the womb digestive problems a rinse for mouth sores leaves and flowers as cooling compresses Role in the habitat The Water Lily s leaves shade the water keeping it cool and thus allowing for more dissolved oxygen The plant also provides hiding places for small aquatic creatures which in

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/water_lily.htm (2016-02-16)
    Open archived version from archive

  • duckweed (lemnaceae): info fact sheet, photos
    can double in less than 2 days The Indian species Wolffia microscopica can bud off a new daughter every 30 36 hours Thus one tiny plant could theoretically in four months produce offspring equal to the volume of the earth Role in the habitat Duckweed is an important food for wild waterfowl and fish both directly and as a source of food for small creature that are in turn eaten by the birds and fish As it grows Duckweed absorbs nutrients from the water Thus it has a useful role in controlling the growth of algae both by removing nutrients and by shutting out sunlight as the Duckweed covers the water surface Algae absorbs oxygen and as it decays it further reduces oxygen levels Algal blooms can thus severely affect aquatic life By shading the water Duckweed also keeps it cool and thus allow for more dissolved oxygen And by covering the water surface it minimises water loss through evaporation Uses as food Because Duckweed floats and require little structural fibres 5 15 it has more nutrition by weight compared to other vascular plants protein 15 25 in natural conditions 15 45 when cultured under ideal conditions fat nitrogen and phosphorus It also contains higher amounts of essential amino acids than most plants In fact it most closely resembles animal proteins It also contains large concentrations of trace minerals that make Duckweed good supplements for animal feed In addition they are easily cultivated on small strips of wasteland and easily harvested In fact Duckweed is eaten by people in Thailand There are also projects to look into the cultivation of Duckweed as feed for fish carp poultry chickens ducks livestock pigs Duckweed is also an effective crop For the same amount of nutrients Duckweed grows on 10 the area needed

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/duckweed.htm (2016-02-16)
    Open archived version from archive

  • water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes): info fact sheet, photos
    a year The Water Hyacinth was introduced from its native home in South America to various countries by well meaning people as an ornamental plant to the US in the 1880 s to Africa in the 1950 s spreading to the Congo the Nile and Lake Victoria also in India The fast growing Water Hyacinth soon becomes a noxious weed outside its native habitat Plants interlock in such a dense mass that a person could walk on a floating mat of them from one bank of a river to the other The presence of Water Hyacinth disrupts all life on the water They clog waterways preventing river travel block irrigation canals destroy rice fields ruin fishing grounds By shading the water these plants deprived native aquatic plants of sunlight and animals of oxygenated water As the mats decay there is a sharp increase in nutrient levels in the water which spark off algal growths that further reduces oxygen levels Water Hyacinths are difficult if not impossible to destroy In the US arsenic was used on a large scale which only partially cleared the weeds but poisoned the ecosystem Fire and explosives were also attempted but the plants reproduce rapidly even from the tiniest fragment and simply grew back The most effective measures are biological controls hundreds of which have been studied for this purpose Two weevils a moth and two types of fungi have been introduced to successfully control the plant Other creatures that keep the plant in check include fish Chinese grass carp Ctenopharyngo idella and Tilapia melanopleura and T mossambica and manatees Uses In Singapore as elsewhere it was cultivated as pig food but have become a serious nuisance in reservoirs There are studies on using the plant to detoxify sewage and sludge Role in the habitat In

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/water_hyacinth.htm (2016-02-16)
    Open archived version from archive

  • shorebirds waders in general (charadiiformes): info fact sheet, photos
    lack of food on the northern summer grounds but because there is more food at the staging area for those that arrive first For more about the Mysteries of Migration Feeding styles Shorebirds need to be efficient feeders They need to eat up to one third their body weight every day to fuel their active lifestyle as well as build up fat reserves for their long migrations In some fat reserves can make up to 30 of their body weight Shorebirds can be broadly divided into either pickers or probers Pickers search for food by sight and forage in a typical run and peck manner They run a long distance up to a few metres then abruptly stop with their heads held high and sometimes end with a peck Plovers use this method They also have good night vision and they feed both at night and during the day Probers usually have long bills and they stick these into the soft mud or sand to feel for prey Some mine the surface in a stitching or sewing machine manner Their bills are not rigid insensitive probes The Sandpiper s bill tip is mobile and can act as a finger tip to grasp or grip prey Under the horny layer the bill is rich with tactile organs There are of course other ingenious bills Oystercatchers have a triangular bill that is a cross between a knife and a chisel They may use these to either stab into an open bivalve and severe the muscles that close the shells or to smash open the shell Shorebirds with upturned bills use it to scythe the water sweeping it back and forth to stir up and snag prey Shorebirds have other ways to detect or find prey Snipe are believed to be able to use their feet to sense underground prey Many Plovers foot tremble lifting one foot and vibrating the mud with their toes These apparently persuade prey to show themselves to the birds Turnstones as their names imply find food by turning over seaweed and small stones Phalaropes have an ingenious way to gather food at their arctic breeding sites They spin above the water at one revolution per second creating a whirlpool beneath them which whips up bottom dwelling insect larvae As these rise to the surface they are picked off with the Phalaropes needle like beaks How can so many birds find food in the same place Although huge flocks of different shorebirds may be found in one location they divide up the territory among them There is a horizontal division some search above the tideline others follow the waterline yet others in the shallows and some in deeper water still those with longer legs There is also a vertical division some pick titbits off the ground others probe underground some deeper than others yet others prey on creatures living deeper in the water and others on titbits floating on the water surface Breeding Shorebirds nest on treeless habitats mainly

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Charadiiformes.htm (2016-02-16)
    Open archived version from archive

  • the mystery of bird migration: why and how?
    of altitude moving higher up a mountain in summer and wintering on the lowlands All kinds of birds migrate from large cranes birds of prey to tiny hummingbirds Even flightless birds migrate Emus move from breeding sites in the rainy season to more permanent water sources in the dry Penguins migrate in the ocean Auk babies migrate by swimming until they fledge and can fly Even birds that spend their entire non breeding time in flight such as seagulls also move around on the ocean to follow seasonal food abundances How do birds migrate such long distances Birds exploit the winds to their favour so they can go the distance by burning minimal fuel They may shift altitude to find the best wind conveyor belt Winds at high altitude may blow in the opposite direction from wind on the ground and usually are blowing strongly Larger birds rely on thermals hot air rising from the ground in the mornings to gain altitude by simply soaring These birds usually migrate during the day They may also follow strong updrafts along ridges The longest migration is undertaken by the Arctic Tern Sterna paraisaea It breeds in the Arctic North in the summer then flies all the way to the other pole to spend winter on the Antarctic ice pack The shortest distance between the two poles is 15 000km but the birds usually travel a more circuitous route and can cover up to 20 000km making a round trip of 30 40 000km A few birds fly non stop some for several days covering enormous distances But most birds break journey at staging posts A vital aspect of being able to make such long trips is to lay down enough fat reserves This is why staging posts such as Sungei Buloh are important to migrating birds Preparing for the journey Besides laying down fat reserves migrating birds also need to eat a lot to fuel their regular feather moults Their feathers must be in tip top condition for their long trips Different species moult at different times for most shorebirds it is just after breeding and before the migration to wintering grounds How do migrating birds find their way Studies suggest birds orientate themselves to the compass points using the position of the sun during the day and the stars at night They can also sense magnetic north In addition they use other clues such as visual layout of the land smell of the sea sound waves on shores winds through mountain passes The most amazing aspect of bird migration is that the location route and perhaps even the techniques are hard wired into their brains Many migrating birds abandon their young as soon as they fledge and a short time later the young make the migration on their own Threats to migrating birds Sadly in addition to surviving storms and bad weather exhaustion and other natural obstacles migrating birds are increasingly face human threats Habitat destruction that affects staging posts handicap

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/migration.htm (2016-02-16)
    Open archived version from archive

  • curlew sandpiper (calidris ferruginea): info fact sheet, photos
    flight White wingbar with white rump Similar birds Dunlin Calidris alpina a very rare visitor and migrant The Dunlin is more dumpy with shorter bill and legs and in flight has a dark centre to its white rump Status in Singapore Very common winter visitor and passage migrant to coasts of the island and North offshore islands World distribution Most of the Old World including Australia and New Zealand Classification Family Scolopacidae that includes sandpipers and snipes World 88 species Singapore 34 species From the Order Charadriiformes shorebirds and waders Breeding June July Curlew Sandpipers breed mainly in central Siberia and coasts and islands of the Arctic Sea a few in Northern Alaska They put on partial breeding colours before leaving for breeding grounds at the end of winter mostly the males Curlew Sandpipers nest in high arctic coastal tundra on elevated areas of rough grass next to bogs and pools Males usually return to the same nesting site A male declares his territory with a song flight and slow wingbeats and glides Only females appear to incubate while the males leave early Males generally travel further south than females Migration Although Curlew Sandpipers nest in a small area of Siberia the birds then disperse over a wide area throughout the Old World including Australia and New Zealand The major migration routes are to Africa Black and Caspian Seas Indian subcontinent and Australasia Singapore is a stopover on their way further south August and on their way back March April They travel long distances non stop They winter on muddy poorly vegetated wetland fringes mainly coastal mudflats estuaries sandy shores ponds occasionally inland swamps But many non breeders mostly first year birds may remain in their winter range all year Status and threats Curlew Sandpipers are not considered at risk

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Calidris_ferruginea.htm (2016-02-16)
    Open archived version from archive

  • whimbrel (numenius phaeopus): info fact sheet, photo
    distribution Worldwide Classification Family Scolopacidae World 88 species Singapore 34 species There are four races phaeopus which breed in Iceland Western Russia alboaxillaris in south Urals and migrates to East Africa variegatus in Eastern Russia hudsonicus in Alaska and Canada Order Charadiiformes Whimbrels generally feed alone or in small spread out parties At most times of year they defend some kind of territory On migration they maintain a feeding territory that is guarded against other Whimbrels But Whimbrels roost and migrate in large flocks They prefer to roost on exposed shoals tops of mangrove trees or in shallowly flooded clearings in mangroves which face the open sea Breeding May August Whimbrels breed in the subarctic and arctic from Iceland across Eurasia Alaska and Canada They prefer to nest in boreal or low arctic moorland and tundra next to the treeline The male s courtship includes a high circling song flight comprising a prolonged bubbling They don t have different summer and winter plumage Whimbrel nests are just a shallow depression on the ground usually concealed in low grass or heather They may also make a nest on top of a mound of moss or grass that is surrounded at the base with water The hollow is lined with soft grasses mosses and lichens 2 5 usually 4 eggs are laid these are bluish green to a light olive green with lavender and brown markings Both parents incubate 22 28 days and raise the young As soon as the chicks are dry they leave the nest and stay hidden among the surrounding vegetation Both parents care for the chicks until they fledge in 35 40 days Migration Those Whimbrels that visit Singapore breed in Northeast Asia migrating in winter to India southern China Southeast Asia to the Philippines and the Sundas They migrate with other shorebirds and often act as a sentinel species Very wary Whimbrels are often the first to alert the other birds to danger Their peak arrival in Singapore is September November although a small number may be found throughout the year Probably because many first year birds may remain in their wintering quarters throughout the summer During migration the Whimbrel roosts in mangroves feeds on mudflats at the tideline with other waders They may also be found inland both around wetlands as well as short dry grassland farmland golf courses parks Status and threats Whimbrels are among the most abundant Curlews because of their extensive breeding range Adult Whimbrels have few natural predators aside from foxes and larger raptors Few succumb to predation during migration probably because they are very vigilant Human impact is the biggest threat Whimbrels are affected by habitat loss of nesting sites and refuelling staging posts along the migration route and pollution of shorelines In the early 1900s they were hunted in the US as they migrated south The slaughter had reduced populations there from thousands to a few hundred Although hunting is less widespread now there has been no apparent recovery to

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Numenius_phaeopus.htm (2016-02-16)
    Open archived version from archive