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  • mangrove apple (sonneratia): info fact sheet, photos
    and is used for building boats piling and posts for bridges and houses However the wood corrodes metal probably because of the timber s high mineral content The pneumatophores are made into floats for fishing nets Because Sonneratia species regenerate branches easily from their trunk it is possible to harvest branches without hurting the tree and maintain mangroves for such harvests called coppicing Sonneratia is among the few used in replanting mangroves to protect coastlines the others are Avicennia and Rhizophora Traditional medicinal uses Sonneratia caseolaris is used in poultices for cuts bruises Burma and sprains and swellings Ripe fruit are used to expel intestinal parasites Malay and half ripe fruit for coughs Durian flowers like most bat pollinated flowers are also pom pom shaped No durians without Sonneratia The fragrant night blooming Sonneratia flowers are pollinated mainly by the Dawn Bat Eonycteris spelaea the Common Long tailed Bat Macroglossus minimus and the Lesser Short nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus brachyotis These bats feed on nectar and pollen of flowers and rely mainly on Sonneratia for sustenance The Dawn Bat in particular prefers Sonneratia They are the same bats that pollinate commercially important crops such as durians bananas and papayas Thus without the Sonneratia there would be less of these favourite fruits Role in the habitat Many mangrove creatures and plants depend on Sonneratia They are the host trees of the fireflies Pteroptyx tener that perform spectacular synchronised flashing along the Selangor River in Malaysia Sonneratia leaves make up the bulk of the food eaten by the fascinating Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus of Borneo Other insects and small creatures also feed on their leaves and other parts Being among the first trees to grow low on the tidal mudflats Sonneratia stabilise the riverbanks and coasts providing more favourable ground for other

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/sonneratia.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • alexandrine laurel (callophylum inophyllum): info fact sheet, photos
    dark grey brown Under the leathery skin is a bony shell containing a cork like substance that holds one seed The seed is slightly toxic Status in Singapore Common World distribution Native to coasts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans introduced to some places such as Hawaii Classification Family Clusiaceae In Hawaii it is also used in building boats Because the timber does not smell or taste bad it was also carved into food containers The thick dark green oil which exudes from the drying seeds was used as lamp fuel and to waterproof cloth but this oil is poisonous The fruits are also used to make a brown dye If the trunk is cut it exudes a gum which solidifies The fragrant flowers are used in leis garlands Traditional medicinal uses The gum bark leaves roots flowers and the oil extracted from the seeds are used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ills The oil is used for massages together with coconut oil and flower fragrances A relative of this plant the Bingtangor Tree Calophyllum lanigerum var austrocoriaceum produced a new compound Calanolide A that was found highly effective in controlling the AIDS virus in the laboratory The compound was extracted from a twig and fruit of a tree growing in Sarawak Malaysia When researchers returned to get more material the tree had already been chopped down Fortunately other trees of the same species was found close by Calanolide A has since been synthesised and is still being tested as an AIDS control Role in the habitat The fruits of Calophyllum are dispersed by bats and of those that grow by the river by fish In fact the fruits of the Bintangor tree are used as fish bait by the Malays LINKS Trees in Singapore on Flora

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/alexandrine_laurel.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • blind your eye (excoecaria agallocha): info fact sheet, photos
    Fruit Small round in clusters Seeds float Status in Singapore Rare World distribution Africa across the Asian subcontinent to Japan Southeast Asia to Australia and the Pacific Islands Classification Family Euphorbiaceae World 2 mangrove species Male flowers Female flowers Fruits The tree grows further inland usually at the high water mark It can grow in both stony and muddy ground The tree can tolerate dry and salty conditions It grows quickly in open areas but can also survive in shade Uses Natives in New Guinea use the sap as an ingredient in arrow poison The sap is also used to stun fish The timber is soft white light with a fine grain and rots quickly Nevertheless in Bangladesh the tree is an important source of cheap planks matches and matchboxes and pulp for paper The timber is easily transported by water as it floats It is also used as firewood and converted into charcoal Traditional medicinal uses The plant is used to treat sores and stings from marine creatures Smoke from the bark is used to treat leprosy The plant is being tested for modern medical uses Modern clinical trials show that the plant may have anti HIV anti cancer anti bacterial and anti viral properties Role in the habitat Like other mangrove trees they help stabilise the ground and provide shelter and food for small creatures For more see mangrove trees LINKS The Milky Mangrove fact sheet Poisons Information Database at the National University of Singapore fact sheet Field Guide to the Mangroves of Queensland Fabulous page with diagrams location and distribution map flowering and fruiting seasons Direct uses of mangrove flora in Southeast Asia on the Wetlands International Asia Pacific website uses and traditional medicinal uses ISME International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems fact sheet on distribution habits uses

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/blind%20your%20eye.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • great morinda (morinda citrifolia): info fact sheet, photos
    Aborigines or cooked as a curry The fruits may also be fed to pig livestock The young leaves can also be eaten as a vegetable and contain protein 4 6 Seeds may be roasted and eaten Other uses The bark of the Great Morinda produces a reddish purple and brown dye used in making batik and the tree was widely grown for this purpose in Java In Hawaii a yellowish dye was also extracted from the roots and also used to dye cloth The tree was also purposely planted to provide support for pepper vines and shade tree for coffee bushes Also as a wind break in Surinam Traditional medicinal uses Various parts are used to contain fever and as a tonic Chinese Japan Hawaii leaves flowers fruit bark to treat eye problems skin wounds and abscesses gum and throat problems respiratory ailments constipation fever Pacific Islands Hawaii to treat stomach pains and after delivery Marshall Islands Heated leaves applied to the chest relieve coughs nausea colic Malaysia juice of the leaves is taken for arthritis Philippines The fruit is taken for lumbago asthma and dysentery Indochina pounded unripe fruit is mixed with salt and applied to cuts and broken bones ripe fruit is used to draw out pus from an infected boil Hawaii juices of over ripe fruits are taken to regulate menstrual flow ease urinary problems Malay fruits used to make a shampoo Malay Hawaii and to treat head lice Hawaii Other exotic diseases treated with the plant include diabetes widespread and venereal diseases Role in the habitat Like other mangrove and shore plants the Great Morinda helps to stabilise the shore and provide shade under which other less hardy plants can establish themselves Their fruits appear to attract the Weaver Ants Oecophylla smaragdina which also often make

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/morinda.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • sea almond tree (terminalia catappa): info fact sheet, photos
    coasts of the Indo Pacific Oceans Classification Family Combretaceae World 1 mangrove associated species The green almond shaped fruit turns red to purple when ripe The seeds are dispersed by water The smooth outer skin covers an inner layer of corky fibres which surround the nut This shell helps the fruit to float Uses as food The nuts are edible taste like almonds and are eaten although the flesh is troublesome to separate from the hard stone Malays and some Pacific islanders Unlike the commercial almond the Sea Almond can be eaten raw Oil extracted from the dried nuts is edible and used in cooking South America Other uses Its timber is not widely used but in some places where other suitable timber is lacking e g islands it is made into heavy duty items like carts wheels and posts Tannin and a black dye can be extracted from the bark leaves and fruit In Singapore it is a common wayside tree planted to provide colour and shade Traditional medicinal uses Leaves bark and fruits dysentery Southeast Asia dressing of rheumatic joints Indonesia India Fruits and bark coughs Samoa asthma Mexico Fruits leprosy headaches India Ripe fruits travel nausea Mexico Leaves get rid of intestinal parasites Philippines treat eye problems rheumatism wounds Samoa stop bleeding during teeth extraction Mexico fallen leaves used to treat liver diseases Taiwan young leaves for colic South America Juice of leaves scabies skin diseases leprosy India Pakistan Bark throat and mouth problems stomach upsets and diarrhoea Samoa fever dysentery Brazil Modern research has identified some properties which could be used to treat high blood pressure Role in the habitat Various species of biting and stinging ants have been found inhabiting hollow twigs of the tree While the tree provides these creatures with a home the

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/sea_almond.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • portia tree (thespesia populnea): info fact sheet, photos
    flower and fruits and a red one from the bark and heartwood Mangrove and wetland wildlife at Sungei Buloh Nature Park Main features Mangrove associate A spreading habit grows to 10 12m tall Bark Brown corrugated Scaly twigs Leaves Small heart shaped shiny green Flowers Pale yellow without red stigma as in Sea Hibiscus Last for only one day turning maroon and dropping then Fruits Capsule is a flattened leathery sphere with disc like sepals Green at first turning brown then black as it ripens and dries The capsule then opens releasing 8 15 black seeds Similar plant Sea Hibiscus Hibiscus tiliaceus flowers appear similar yellow with maroon eye and also turn dull orange with age but have dark red stigma and fall off the same evening or Photo from Peter Ng and Sivasothi day after leaves have slits on their underveins that secrete nectar fruits and timber are different Status in Singapore Common in suitable habitats World distribution Native to the Old World introduced and naturalised in the New World Classification Family Malvaceae World 1 mangrove associated species Other products extracted from the plant includes tannin oil and gums a dark red resin exudes from the bark A fast growing shrub that grows into a small tree with spreading branches it casts welcome shade and in Hawaii were planted near homes for this purpose In India they were planted to provide shade in coffee and tea plantations Traditional medicinal uses Ground up bark is used to treat skin diseases India dysentery and haemorrhoids Mauritius Leaves are applied to inflamed and swollen joints South India When cut the young fruit secretes a yellow sticky sap used to treat ringworm and other skin diseases South India Roots are used as a tonic There is some modern investigation of the plant s

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/portia.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • sea hibiscus (hibiscus tiliaceus): info fact sheet, photos
    do not have nectaries fruits and timber are different Status in Singapore Common growing wild or planted along coastal areas and back mangroves World distribution Worldwide Classification Family Malvaceae World 1 mangrove associated species The rope is used to make a wide variety of items including fishing nets hammocks mats slings bow strings net bags string for sewing or making leis flower garlands In Tahiti and other Polynesian Islands it is used to make grass skirts The bark is also used unprocessed as a quick source of binding cord by hunters and farmers The white timber is lightweight floats well but tough Thus in Hawaii it is used to make outrigger canoes Sometimes young branches were trained to form the required shapes for this purpose or bent to shape in an underground oven The branches are stripped of bark then soaked in seawater for several weeks to discourage insects and rot The timber is also used to make handles of axes spears and brooms Small pieces of wood were used as floats It is ideal as tinder for starting fires Traditional medicinal uses Leaves are used to cool fevers soothe coughs and remove phlegm Malaysia Indonesia fresh bark soaked in water is used to treat dysentery Philippines for chest congestion and during birth Polynesians fresh flowers boiled with milk is used to treat ear infections the crushed flowers are applied to abscesses Guam buds chewed and swallowed for dry throat Slimy sap of the bark branches and flower buds used as a mild laxative or as a lubricant in childbirth Role in the habitat The plant secretes a substance that attracts ants not in its flowers but through its leaves Each of three leaf veins on the under surface near the stalk have a small slit It is from here

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/sea_hibiscus.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • sea poison tree (barringtonia asiatica): info fact sheet, photos
    Buloh Nature Park Main features Mangrove associate Grows up to 25m Bark Grey smooth Leaves Large simple egg shaped shiny Flowers Night blooming flowers appear on a long spike from the centre of a leaf group Flower is a puff ball of stamens with four small white petals Fruits Lantern shaped floats on water Green at first turning brown when ripe Status in Singapore Common World distribution Coasts of the Indian to Western Pacific Oceans from Africa India to Southeast Asia and Polynesia Classification Family Lecythidaceae World 2 mangrove associated species The outermost layer of the fruit wall is green turning brown when ripe The middle layer is spongy and contains air sacs to help the fruit float The innermost layer is hard and thick to protect the seed the layers of spongy and hard coverings are somewhat similar to the coconut Uses All parts of the tree contain saponin a poison The seeds and other parts of the plant are pounded pulped or grated to release the poison and used to stun fish in freshwater streams The floating seeds are sometimes used as fishing floats A colourful shady tree it is commonly planted as a roadside tree in Singapore Traditional medicinal uses The heated leaves are used to treat stomach ache and rheumatism Philippines seeds are used to get rid of intestinal worms Role in the habitat It is among the plants that host the magnificent Atlas Moth LINKS Trees in Singapore on Flora and Fauna section of the NParks website description distribution photo Drift Seeds And Drift Fruits Seeds That Ride The Ocean Currents on Wayne s Word About how the Pacific Ocean islanders use the tree Plants of Guam by Philip H Moore and Patrick D McMakin on the University of Guam website brief fact sheet on

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/sea_poison.htm (2016-02-16)
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