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  • avicennia in general: info fact sheet, photos
    are commonly seen in Sungei Buloh include Api Api Putih A alba Api Api Ludat A officinalis Api Api Bulu A rhumphiana Avicennia is named after Ibn Sina 980 1037 AD a Persian physician philosopher who gained fame by curing at the tender age of 17 the King of Bukhhara of an ailment that other physicians were unable to treat As a reward he asked only for permission to use the King s library Ibn Sina went on to write an immense encyclopaedia of the medical knowledge of his time which remained in use for the next six centuries The encyclopaedia included his own insights into the causes and spread of diseases and their treatment including tuberculosis meningitis he was the first to describe it gynaecological and diseases of childhood He also wrote an encyclopaedia of other scientific and philosophical knowledge covering physics mathematics economics and politics In this he also added his own insights into among others the laws of physics astronomical measurements and mathematical verifications The tiny flowers are hermaphroditic female flowers producing sterile pollen while male flowers produce sterile ovules Both types produce lots of nectar and fragrance to attract insect pollinators Avicennia produces some of the best honey While the seed does germinate on the mother tree the growing shoot does not penetrate the seed coat while the fruit is still on the tree thus this is called cryptovivipary The shoot and roots only appear after the fruit falls off And these grow best in water of the right temperature and salinity Because Avicennia species regenerate branches easily from their trunk it is possible to harvest branches without hurting the tree and maintain mangroves for such harvests called coppicing Avicennia is among the few used in replanting mangroves to protect coastlines the others are Sonneratia and

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/avicennia.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • avicennia alba: info fact sheet, photos
    as a fish poison and resin used in birth control Role in the habitat Avicennia alba provides food for smaller creatures Tiny moth larvae eat the fruits Autoba alabastrata and flower buds Euopoicillia sp Beetles eat their leaves Monolepta sp For general role see mangrove trees Mangrove and wetland wildlife at Sungei Buloh Nature Park Main features Grows to 25m Roots pencil like pneumatophores emerge above ground from long shallow underground roots Leaves Shiny green above underneath white and waxy Flowers Small yellow several together forming a cross shaped inflorescence Fruits Flat capsule containing one seed Status in Singapore Common in mangroves on the main island and offshore islands World distribution Southern Asia to Southeast Asia Australia and Oceania Classification Family Avicenniaceae World 8 mangrove species LINKS Direct uses of mangrove flora in Southeast Asia on the Wetlands International Asia Pacific website medicinal uses Mangrove Conservation and Development fact sheet on Avicennia alba with lots of photos Plants of Guam by Philip H Moore and Patrick D McMakin on the University of Guam website brief fact sheet on Avicennia alba with photo The uses of mangroves by the Australian Institute of Marine Science AIMS uses REFERENCES To buy these references

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/avicennia%20alba.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • api api ludat (avicennia officinalis): info fact sheet, photos
    the bark and roots It also produces a dye and the ashes used in making soap Traditional medicinal uses Fruits are plastered onto boils and tumours India A poultice of unripe seeds stop inflammations and heal abscesses ulcers boils and smallpox sores Roots are considered an aphrodisiac Mangrove and wetland wildlife at Sungei Buloh Nature Park Main features Grows to 25m Bark Young trees are reddish brown and smooth older trees are grey brown Roots Pencil like pneumatophores emerge above ground from long shallow underground roots Leaves Thick leathery spoon like rounded at tip with edges slightly rolled under shiny green above underneath slightly hairy Flowers Small yellow several together forming a cross shaped inflorescence Fruits Flat capsule containing one seed Status in Singapore Rare World distribution Southern Asia to Southeast Asia Australia and Oceania Classification Family Avicenniaceae World 8 mangrove species The bark is used to treat skin problems especially scabies Indochina The cut bark oozes a rubber like green bitter resin that is mixed with bananas and taken by women as a contraceptive that is successful and has no long term side effects West Java and Sulawesi Seed for ulcers the resin for snakebite Philippines Role in the

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/avicennia%20officinalis.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • api api bulu (avicennia rumphiana): info fact sheet, photos
    through evaporation Uses as food The seeds are boiled and eaten in some places they are sold in markets as vegetables The fragrant flowers produce nectar and are pollinated by insects Avicennia produces some of the best honey Other uses This fast growing mangrove tree is among the few used in replanting mangroves to protect coastlines the others are Sonneratia and Rhizophora It is rarely used to make charcoal and is used as firewood only to smoke fish or rubber Role in the habitat See mangrove trees Mangrove and wetland wildlife at Sungei Buloh Nature Park Main features Grows to 25m Roots pencil like pneumatophores emerge above ground from long shallow underground roots Leaves Satiny green above underneath densely furred yellowish brown Flowers Small yellow several together forming a cross shaped inflorescence Fruits Woolly flat capsule containing one seed green to yellowish brown Status in Singapore Common in mangroves on the main island and offshore islands World distribution Southeast Asia to New Guinea Classification Family Avicenniaceae World 8 mangrove species REFERENCES To buy these references others visit Nature s Niche Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi A Guide to the Mangroves of Singapore I The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/avicennia%20rumphiana.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • bakau putih (bruguiera cylindrica): info fact sheet, photoss
    It forms a short stout stem with sepals that stick out away from the seedling Uses as food Young shoots may be eaten as a vegetable or preserved after boiling In Thailand the root tips are eaten The bark may be used as a cooking spice Mangrove and wetland wildlife at Sungei Buloh Nature Park Main features Grows up to 20m tall Bark Smooth grey Roots Kneed pneumatophores with buttress roots Leaves Thin light green pointed Flowers small greenish white petals tipped with little tassels Fruits The seed germinates in the fruit forming a cigar shaped seedling up to 15cm long The seedling grows slightly curved and may be purplish The green yellow sepals stick out at right angles from the fruit Similar trees B gymnorhiza has red sepals that clasp the seedling The seedling grows straight Flowers are large red Status in Singapore Among the most common mangroves in Singapore World distribution Southeast Asia to Australia Classification Family Rhizophoraceae World 6 species Other uses The timber is heavy and tough and used in construction It is also favoured as firewood and for conversion into charcoal as it produces the most heat among mangrove woods The bark produces a strange

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/bruguiera%20cylindrica.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • tumu (bruguiera gymnorhiza): info fact sheet, photos
    germinates in the fruit forming a cigar shaped seedling 10 20cm long The seedling grows straight and has a blunt narrow tip Similar trees B cylindrica which has green yellow sepals that are at right angles from the seedling seedling grows slightly curved flowers are tiny yellow Status in Singapore Rare World distribution Tropical South and East Africa through the Indian Ocean coasts Southeast Asia Australia Micronesia and Polynesia Introduced to Hawaii Classification Family Rhizophoraceae World 6 species This makes it hard to work with but valuable as fishing stakes pilings telephone poles railway sleepers heavy pillars and beams and other construction It is commercially planted in Indonesia Sabah and Sarawak to produce wood chips that is turned into paper pulp or to produce rayon fabric It is also favoured as firewood and for conversion into charcoal as it produces the most heat among mangrove woods Unlike some mangroves however Bruguiera does not regenerate easily from branch cutting as new growth appears only from branch tips and not the trunk Thus careless harvesting of branches can damage or kill the tree The tree was introduced to the Hawaiian islands where the colourful red flower is now incorporated into their leis flower garlands In the Marshall Islands the bark is used to make rope for fishing nets The seedlings are used to produce a dye that does not bleed in water The seedlings are peeled chopped up boiled and the fabric immersed in the soup then dried in the shade The resulting colour is a red brown and repeated dyeing gives black The dye also strengthened fishing nets grass skirts and other fibres In Southeast Asia the tree is one of the traditional dyes used in batik making it produces an orange red colour A scent is extracted from the knee

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/bruguiera%20gymnorhiza.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • bakau (rhizophora): info fact sheet, photos
    which they later shed Rhizophora grow best in wet muddy and silty sediments The tiny flowers are wind pollinated producing lots of powdery pollen and no fragrance or nectar They are also self pollinating The fruit does not fall away when it ripens Instead the single seed within the fruit starts to germinate while it is still on the mother tree and the mother tree channels nutrients to the growing seedling vivipary The seedling forms a stem called a hypocotyl When the seedling finally falls at first it floats horizontally and drifts with the tide It can survive for long periods at sea After some weeks the tip gradually absorbs water and the seedling floats vertically and starts to sprout its first leaf from the top and roots from the bottom When it hits land it grows more roots to anchor itself upright and then more leaves Rhizophora seedlings grow rapidly to avoid being submerged at high tide They can grow by 60cm in the first year Because Rhizophora are fast growing and flower within their first year they are often used to replant mangroves either for conservation or as part of a managed forest to produce timber for construction or charcoal The other mangrove species used in replanting mangroves are Avicennia and Sonneratia Rhizophora found in Sungei Buloh Nature Park Bakau Minyak R apiculata leaf stipule and leaf stalk reddish Flower inflorescence short stout dark grey Seedlings shorter 30cm slender with a smooth skin and grows slightly curved with a rounded tip More restricted distribution only Southeast Asia and Micronesia Bakau R stylosa and Bakau Kurap R mucronata In both the flower inflorescence is longer slender and yellow the seedling is longer 60cm and has a warty bumpy surface The flower of R stylosa has a longer style 4

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/rhizophora.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • bakau kurap (rhizophora mucronata): info fact sheet, photos
    and a pointed tip Similar trees R apiculata flower inflorescence short stout dark grey Seedling is shorter 30cm smooth skin Status in Singapore Rare World distribution East Africa through coasts of the Indian Ocean to Southeast Asia China Australia Melanesia Micronesia Classification Family Rhizophoraceae World 8 mangrove species Uses as food Fruits may be eaten after scraping off the skin and boiling with wood ashes according to some sceptical accounts The Wealth of India describes the fruit as sweet and edible and indicates that the juice is made into a light wine Young shoots are cooked and eaten as a vegetable But honey collected from the flowers is said to be poisonous Other uses The timber is heavy difficult to saw and not durable unless it is dried for a long time But it is used for construction to make fish traps house frames pilings and poles Rhizophora is the preferred mangrove wood for firewood and to make charcoal It produces an even heat and is easy to split for firewood It is also chipped and used in commercial paper and rayon production in Indonesia and East Malaysia Sabah and Sarawak Tannins and dyes are extracted from the bark a black to chestnut dye is obtained from the leaves Unlike some other mangrove trees new growths from Rhizophora trees only emerge from branch tips and not the trunk So they can be killed by excessive collection of branches for firewood or other uses They are planted along coastal fish ponds to stabilise the banks Traditional medicinal uses It is used as an astringent and to treat angina haemorrhaging extracts from the seedlings in Indochina diarrhoea China Japan diabetes dysentery hematuria A poultice of the leaves are used to relief armoured fish stings Old leaves and roots are used during childbirth

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/rhizophora%20mucronata.htm (2016-02-16)
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