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  • large tailed nightjar (caprimulgus macrurus): info fact sheet, photos
    Southeast Asia 6 Singapore 3 Order Caprimulgiformes Nightjars have a serrated comb like portion on the inner middle toe like some bitterns owls and pelicans These may be used to comb out insect debris from their facial feathers This one was seen at the Park sitting on a mud lobster mound During the day Nightjars sit motionless on the ground perfectly camouflaged among the leaf litter Often they will remain unmoving until you almost step on them They may also perch on a low branch The Nightjar has a brightly coloured mouth which it may suddenly gape open to startle a predator thus giving the Nightjar a head start in making its escape Jarring Calls Large tailed Nightjars have a monotonous repetitious call which sounds like knocking on wood Thus their Malay name is tukang kayu woodcutter bird It is also called burung malas lazy bird or the more sinister tukang kubur gravedigger bird This sound is believed to be their territorial call Breeding Mar Jun When two Nightjars are near each other they make a low frog like croaking which could be part of a pair bonding ritual They call often during breeding season from a pole or branch Nightjars don t make a nest and simply lay 1 2 mottled buffy pinkish eggs on the ground in a shallow depression They nest in the open usually in a shaded area under a tree or bush The eggs are perfectly camouflaged and look like pebbles Eggs average 8 9gm the first egg is usually heavier and larger Both parents take turns brooding the eggs which hatch in 16 18 days The chicks emerge with down feathers and can move away from the nest site 1 2 days after they hatch To avoid detection the chicks keep changing their rest spot every night sometimes siblings rest up separately During the day among dead leaves in the undergrowth the babies mealy brown feathers camouflage them perfectly It appears only the female cares for the young until they can fly Like other ground nesting birds she will distract predators by moving away from her eggs or chicks while pretending to have a broken wing The young are not helpless and when threatened flap their wings with their bills wide open lunging forwards in self defence In Europe Nightjars follow night foraging domestic livestock eating the insects disturbed by the bigger creatures People thought the birds fed on the milk of these domesticated animals and mistakenly called the birds goat suckers Migration Nightjars don t appear to migrate They are found in forest edges and open but humid areas such as mangroves forest edge scrub cultivated lands They are not common in the deep forest Status and threats In Singapore Large tailed Nightjars are still rather common and not considered at risk But they are disturbed by fogging of their habitat and habitat loss LINKS Malaysia E Zoo fact sheet with photo REFERENCES To buy these references others visit Nature s Niche Morten

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Caprimulgus_macrurus.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • emerald dove chalcophaps indica
    Asia to eastern Australia Classification Family Columbidae World 310 species Singapore 11 species Pigeons and doves do not have well developed oil glands which in other birds are used to waterproof their feathers Instead pigeons and doves have special plumes scattered throughout their body which disintegrate to produce a powder which cleans and lubricates the feathers Breeding Emerald Doves appear to have a limited breeding season from April to September Like other pigeons the nest is a flimsy platform often simply leaf litter that gathers naturally in a palm frond stabilised by a few twigs One nest comprised simply a large leaf lying on a tangle of creepers They only nest in the forest or closed canopy woodland 1 5m above the ground 1 2 white eggs are laid but usually only 1 chick survives It appears only the female incubates The eggs hatch in about 2 weeks and the young fledge in 12 13 days Pigeon s Milk The most fascinating feature of pigeons and doves is their ability to produce crop milk During breeding season special glands in the crops of both males and females enlarge and secrete a thick milky substance The chicks drink this milk by poking their bills into the parent s throat Thus pigeons and doves can feed their young without having to incessantly hunt or forage for food Instead of laying many eggs they lay one or at most two eggs Their abundance is proof that this feature gives them the advantage Migration Although Emerald Doves may travel long distances to forage for food and are somewhat nomadic following fruiting seasons they are not migratory They are found in lowland and montane forests secondary growths mangroves also in cultivated lands Status and threats Although Emerald Doves have adapted to feed in parks and

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Chalcophaps_indica.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • zebra or peaceful dove (geopelia striata): info fact sheet, photos
    disintegrate to produce a powder which cleans and lubricates the feathers Breeding Zebra Doves breed in September to June Zebra Dove males have a courtship display of brisk bobbing with head down and tail up while loudly calling They do this on a high perch facing the female As the pair sit side by side he may sing Like other pigeons the Zebra Dove nest is a flimsy platform of twigs and fibres usually in a small tree palm and sometimes in a bush 1 2 white eggs are laid Migration Although Zebra Doves may disperse widely to look for food or escape harassment they are not migratory Being a popular cage bird they are introduced to many areas they were not native to Pigeon s Milk The most fascinating feature of pigeons and doves is their ability to produce crop milk During breeding season special glands in the crops of both males and females enlarge and secrete a thick milky substance The chicks drink this milk by poking their bills into the parent s throat Thus pigeons and doves can feed their young without having to incessantly hunt or forage for food Instead of laying many eggs they lay one or at most two eggs Their abundance is proof that this feature gives them the advantage Status and threats Zebra Doves adapt well to cultivated area and quickly spread to such places Popular in bird singing contests wild Zebra Doves are often heavily trapped for sale as cage birds Nevertheless they are still common and not considered at risk in Singapore LINKS Perkutut Mall info about habits features about the Zebra Dove focusing on keeping it as a pet in Bahasa REFERENCES To buy these references others visit Nature s Niche Morten Strange A Photographic Guide to Birds of

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Geopelia_striata.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • spotted dove (stretopelia chinensis): info fact sheet, photos
    and is more zebra stripped Status in Singapore Very common resident throughout the island and North and South offshore islands World distribution India through Southeast Asia Introduced to the US northern Indonesia Australia New Zealand Classification Family Columbidae World 310 species Singapore 11 species The one found in Singapore is of the subspecies S c tigrina Pigeons and doves do not have well developed oil glands which in other birds are used to waterproof their feathers Instead they have special plumes scattered throughout their body which disintegrate to produce a powder which cleans and lubricates the feathers Breeding Spotted Doves appear to breed year round To advertise his nesting site a male performs a flight display of a steep climb accompanied by loud wing claps followed by a downward swoop in a circular dive The Spotted Dove s platform nest is less flimsy than that of other doves but still flimsy compared to other birds nests Made out of twigs grasses and roots these are 11 15cm in diameter and shallow 2 3cm deep Nests are made in low trees or tall bushes usually near open ground Pigeon s Milk The most fascinating feature of pigeons and doves is their ability to produce crop milk During breeding season special glands in the crops of both males and females enlarge and secrete a thick milky substance The chicks drink this milk by poking their bills into the parent s throat Thus pigeons and doves can feed their young without having to incessantly hunt or forage for food Instead of laying many eggs they lay one or at most two eggs Their abundance is proof that this feature gives them the advantage Nests are usually about 3m off the ground but heights range from 1 to 14m Both parents build the nest 1 2 white eggs are laid Both parents share incubation duties Migration Spotted Doves don t migrate but they disperse readily to colonise new areas suitable for them such as newly cleared and agricultural land In Singapore they are found mainly in open places including gardens parks cultivated areas mangroves and found even in built up urban places Status and threats Spotted Doves adapt well to cultivated areas and quickly spread to such places But they are affected by use of pesticides and herbicides Popular in bird singing contests wild Spotted Doves are often heavily trapped for sale as cage birds Nevertheless they are still common and not considered at risk in Singapore REFERENCES To buy these references others visit Nature s Niche Morten Strange A Photographic Guide to Birds of Malaysia and Singapore including Southeast Asia the Philippines and Borneo Periplus 2000 p 142 description voice habits distribution status photo Morten Strange Tropical Birds of Malaysia and Singapore Periplus Editions 2000 p 24 habits habitat photo David R Wells The Birds of the Thai Malay Peninsula Vol 1 Non Passarines Academic Press 1999 p 338 340 identification distribution map habits habitat migration conservation Lim Kim Seng and Dana Gardner

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Streptopelia_chinensis.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • pink-necked green pigeon (treron vernans): info fact sheet, photos
    tree males especially may defend small patches from others in the flock Pink necked Green Pigeons tend to roost together and a site may attract hundreds of birds from a wide area and become a traditional roost Favoured roosting sites are tall trees in swamps and mangroves But they nest alone and not in large colonies Pigeons and doves do not have well developed oil glands which in other birds are used to waterproof their feathers Instead they have special plumes scattered throughout their body which disintegrate to produce a powder which cleans and lubricates the feathers Breeding late March to late July The male Pink necked is very handsome and colourful The duller female is easily confused with those of other Green Pigeons and is best identified by her male consort who is usually nearby Like other pigeons the nest is a flimsy platform of twigs About 15 20 cm in diameter and so thin that sometimes the contents can be seen from below The male collects the nesting material and passes these on to the female to assemble Pairs nest alone preferring spots near open spaces in bushes as low as 2m off the ground and up to 10m high in trees and palms Pigeon s Milk The most fascinating feature of pigeons and doves is their ability to produce crop milk During breeding season special glands in the crops of both males and females enlarge and secrete a thick milky substance The chicks drink this milk by poking their bills into the parent s throat Thus pigeons and doves can feed their young without having to incessantly hunt or forage for food Instead of laying many eggs they lay one or at most two eggs Their abundance is proof that this feature gives them the advantage 1 2 white eggs are laid Both parents take turns incubating them and both raise the young Fledglings may remain near the nest for up to 1 week Migration Although Pink necked Green Pigeons may travel long distances to forage for food they are quite sedentary and don t migrate Status and threats The Pink necked Green Pigeons used to be far more common in the past bags of them where regularly shot during colonial times in Singapore They are still hunted in other parts of Asia usually shot as they gathered in large flocks in the evening at their communal roosts They are a particular favourite probably because according to Tweedie they are just big enough to be worth cooking Besides this hunting pressure they are probably also affected by the disappearance of their food trees Nevertheless Pink neck Pigeons are still among the more commonly seen of Green Pigeons in Singapore as they have adapted to non forest habitats such as mangroves cultivated land in rural as well as urban areas REFERENCES To buy these references others visit Nature s Niche Morten Strange A Photographic Guide to Birds of Malaysia and Singapore including Southeast Asia the Philippines and Borneo

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Treron_vernans.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • osprey (pandion haliaetus): info fact sheet, photos
    migrating alone But where fishing is good several can coexist peacefully Breeding Ospreys do not breed in our part of the world They generally pair for life The male selects the nesting site which ideally should be located near a good source of food 3 5 km from shallow water free of predators e g near or over water on islands and surrounded by open area for easy take off and landing and easy sight approaching of predators Sites are usually tall dead trees with flat tops or even man made structures such as pylons and towers 3 18m off the ground sometimes also on cliffs Some ospreys nest in colonies The male courts with aerial acrobatics and by presenting his mate with food or nesting material accompanied by a courtship call The male will feed the female even before she lays and often throughout the rest of the breeding season while the female stays in the nest to look after the young and fend off predators How well the male feeds the female determines the strength of the pair bond The nest is a platform of coarse sticks other bits and pieces It is reused every season Both parents build or refurbish the nest 2 4 usually 3 creamy eggs with reddish brown spots are laid But there is sibling rivalry among the young so it is rare for more than 1 2 offspring to survive The female does most of the incubation which takes about 5 6 weeks relying on the male to feed her Although both parents feed the young the males take the lead often eating the head and tail only leaving the more nutritious parts of the fish for his mate and their young The young fledge in about 6 weeks Ospreys are able to breed at 3 5 years old and can live for 13 18 years Migration One population of Osprey breeds in the north in a circle covering Russia North America and Europe While those that breed far north migrate to the subtropics and tropics in winter others are resident in northern subtropical regions e g Florida and breed in winter December January the babies fledge in April May Ospreys seen in Singapore are northern breeders which arrive mainly in October March Ospreys however can be seen year round in Singapore These are probably immatures or non breeders who stayed over Another Osprey population breeds in the south in Australia and eastern Indonesia These lack the masks of the northern population and winter in the Philippines and possibly Borneo Ospreys migration in flocks of 8 10 Status and threats As a top predator Ospreys are considered a good indicator of the health of their environment Ospreys were widely hunted as a pest on game fishing and fish farms in reality their catch is negligible Ospreys can only eat about 300gm at one sitting and will stop hunting once they have their fill Hunting them is now illegal in many parts of their

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Pandion_haliaetus.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • black winged kite (elanus caerulus): info fact sheet, photos
    in an obvious V shape From below white body wing coverts and secondaries contrasting with black secondaries from above all pale grey except for black wing lining Flaps with deep slow strokes that bounces the body Frequently hovers with tail pointing down Status in Singapore Very common resident throughout including North offshore islands World distribution Africa and Asia Classification Family Accipitridae World 240 species Singapore 27 species They prefer hunting sites with good perches and a favourite perch may be used daily Black winged Kites are found in open country like back mangroves grasslands and oil palm plantations Although seen in secondary growth and forest edges they are not found in the forest Although they may share a roost tree and nest in the same tree Black shouldered Kites usually defend a hunting territory from others of their kind Some may also defend a nesting site These Kites may engage in aerial battles locking talons and spinning nearly to the ground They attack each other in flight by rolling over and striking upwards with their talons Breeding Black winged Kites breed year round Males court with mock dive attacks on a perching female and a mated pair may perform aerial displays or soaring and chasing and calling from the nest tree Paired mates also share food even away from the nest They usually mate high on a tree or perch Black winged Kites nest high up in trees or palms especially coconut palms 6 46m above the ground The nest is an untidy small platform 1m across built of thin sticks with a lining of fine twigs or grass stems The male does most of the collection of nesting material bringing it to the female which builds the nest They build a new nest every year although they may use the same area or even the same tree They aggressively defend the nest site from all other birds including small ones like crows Average 3 5 sometimes only 1 2 white eggs are laid It appears that only the female incubates 25 28 days but the male provides her with food She doesn t hunt until the young are half way to fledging which they do in 74 days Although the chicks hatch at different times there is little aggression among them and often all survive The male brings prey to the nest and the female feeds the chicks She does not favour the largest chick and feeds all of them The pair may lay again as soon as the first brood leaves their territory Migration A few Black winged Kites breed in Singapore Records suggest they only recently settled here and were previously migrants Established pairs tend to stay put but others will move on to find new habitats thus resulting in gradual movement to new areas Status and threats Black winged Kites are not at risk in Singapore as they benefit from the open habitats created by human interference parks reclaimed land green corridors They are good natural

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Elanus_caerulus.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • brahminy kite (haliastur indus):info fact sheet, photos
    belly wings and tail and the rest is grey instead of bronze Status in Singapore Very common resident throughout including North and South offshore islands World distribution Coastal areas in India through China to the Philippines and Australia Classification Family Accipitridae World 240 species Singapore 27 species Habitats best suited to Brahminy Kites are broad mudflats such as those found in mangroves estuaries and coasts They are also found in freshwater wetlands such as ricefields and marshes In Singapore they are also found inland near water and even in cultivated areas gardens parks They may roost together in trees along the coast Breeding During mating season November December Brahminy Kites perform aerial acrobatics They mate on or near the nest Brahminy Kites prefer to nest in mangroves usually in tall emergent trees Some use dead trees perhaps the tree was alive when it was first used as a nest site On swampy sites that are more secure from land predators they may nest as low as 5 6 m But on dry land usually at 20 25 m In Singapore they also nest along the coasts in casuarina trees and near reservoirs Although they do not share nesting trees pairs may nest less than 100 m apart Their nest is compact and made of twigs and sticks usually 60 90 cm wide and 15 30 cm deep The nest is often lined with dried mud A first time nest is usually thin but as the pair reuse the site the nest thickens 2 eggs are laid white with sparse red brown blotches Both parents raise the young Migration Brahminy Kites are sedentary and do not migrate Status and threats Brahminy Kites are very common in Singapore mostly because they are very tolerant of humans Being unfussy scavengers also allow them to survive in a wide range of habitats but they still require mangroves for nesting sites In nearby Java however they are rarely seen we don t know why Elsewhere while they are still commonly seen along mangrove coasts their numbers are declining due to habitat loss They are also hunted in Thailand along with other kites and their young taken for pets Their tendency to raid prawn and fish farms and even steal chickens also cause them to be considered as pests in some areas It is believed that their name Brahminy results from their association with the Indian God Vishnu To the Iban of Malaysia it is the Bird God of War The Brahminy Kite s presence is an omen to guide them in major decisions such on warfare and house building LINKS The Hawk Conservancy fact sheet photos calls links REFERENCES To buy these references others visit Nature s Niche Morten Strange A Photographic Guide to Birds of Malaysia and Singapore including Southeast Asia the Philippines and Borneo Periplus 2000 p 73 description voice habits distribution status photo Morten Strange Tropical Birds of Malaysia and Singapore Periplus Editions 2000 p 11 habits habitat photo David R Wells

    Original URL path: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/birds/Haliastur_indus.htm (2016-02-16)
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